[66][67] To discourage further invasions, Kenya signed a defence pact with Ethiopia in 1969, which is still in effect. Through the Jubilee Coalition, the Bill was later passed on 19 December in the National Assembly under acrimonious circumstances.[118]. In 2013, it launched a National Climate Change Action Plan, having acknowledged that omitting climate as a key development issue in Vision 2030 was an oversight failure. 1 1. Kisumu City is the third largest city and also an inland port on Lake Victoria. [107], The "Big Five" game animals of Africa, that is the lion, leopard, buffalo, rhinoceros, and elephant, can be found in Kenya and in the Masai Mara in particular. Nairobi's occupants were screened and the suspected Mau Mau supporters moved to detention camps. David Anderson (2003) reports the elections were judged free and fair by local and international observers, and seemed to mark a turning point in Kenya's democratic evolution.[85]. An official probe into the atrocities was later ordered in 2011. The "short rains" season occurs from October to November/December. [207] A colonial order of gender emerged where males dominated females. He retained the presidency, running unopposed in elections held in 1979, 1983 (snap elections), and 1988, all of which were held under the single-party constitution. Shortfalls of electricity occur periodically, when drought reduces water flow. [178], Kenya's capital, Nairobi, is home to Kibera, one of the world's largest slums. Previous research on early hominids is particularly identified with Mary Leakey and Louis Leakey, who were responsible for the preliminary archaeological research at Olorgesailie and Hyrax Hill. [198] The WHO estimated in 2011 that only 42% of births were attended by a skilled health professional. [78], In 1991, Kenya transitioned to a multiparty political system after 26 years of single-party rule. Bass, guitar, and percussion are the usual instruments. [143] Kenya's best-known athletes include the four-time women's Boston Marathon winner and two-time world champion Catherine Ndereba, 800m world record holder David Rudisha, former marathon world record-holder Paul Tergat, and John Ngugi. [97][98], At 580,367 km2 (224,081 sq mi),[10] Kenya is the world's forty-seventh largest country (after Madagascar). [35] The Bantus originated in West Africa along the Benue River in what is now eastern Nigeria and western Cameroon. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Our culture, our societies don't accept. In cities such as Nairobi, there are fast-food restaurants, including Steers, KFC,[230] and Subway. [79][81], The elections of 1992 marked the beginning of multiparty politics after more than 25 years of rule by KANU. To protect their interests, the settlers banned the growing of coffee, introduced a hut tax, and the landless were granted less and less land in exchange for their labour. [68], On 12 December 1964, the Republic of Kenya was proclaimed, and Jomo Kenyatta became Kenya's first president. [209], Children attend nursery school, or kindergarten in the private sector until they are five years old. By the 1930s, approximately 30,000 white settlers lived in the area and gained a political voice because of their contribution to the market economy. Some of the best rally drivers in the world have taken part in and won the rally, such as Björn Waldegård, Hannu Mikkola, Tommi Mäkinen, Shekhar Mehta, Carlos Sainz, and Colin McRae. Moi retained the presidency and George Saitoti became the vice-president. [63][64] In this way, Kenya became an independent country under the Kenya Independence Act 1963 of the United Kingdom. Noun 1. Notable populations include the Swahili on the coast, several other Bantu communities in the central and western regions, and Nilotic communities in the northwest. It lies between latitudes 5°N and 5°S, and longitudes 34° and 42°E. Wajir and Malindi were bombed as well. In western Kenya, among the Luo, fish is a common dish; among the Kalenjin, who dominate much of the Rift Valley Region, mursik—sour milk—is a common drink. The Republic of Kenya is a unitary State. The current Kenya Defence Forces were established, and its composition laid out, in Article 241 of the 2010 Constitution of Kenya; the KDF is governed by the Kenya Defence Forces Act of 2012. President Mwai Kibaki announced on 26 March 2012 that Tullow Oil, an Anglo-Irish oil exploration firm, had struck oil, but its commercial viability and subsequent production would take about three years to confirm.[169]. [82] In the next five years, many political alliances were formed in preparation for the next elections. The main opposition leader, Raila Odinga, claimed that the election results were rigged and that he was the rightfully elected president. The British began counter-insurgency operations. In eastern Africa: The interior before the colonial era…the Rift Valley areas of Kenya and of Tanzania (especially at Olduvai Gorge) and along the Kagera River in Uganda. There are an estimated 47 different communities, with Bantus (60%) and Nilotes (30%) constituting the majority of local residents. On the east and north-east, it borders Somalia. Kenya is a member of the East African Community trade bloc, though some international trade organisations categorise it as part of the Greater Horn of Africa. [94], In 2017, Uhuru Kenyatta won a second term in office in another disputed election. New York Times. [155] Kenya has an oil refinery that processes imported crude petroleum into petroleum products, mainly for the domestic market. This practice is however on the decline as the country becomes more modernised, and in 2011 it was banned in Kenya. Agriculture is the second largest contributor to Kenya's gross domestic product (GDP) after the service sector. In July 2010, Kenya partnered with other East African countries to form the new East African Common Market within the East African Community. This led to increased economic growth of the Swahili states, the introduction of Islam, Arabic influences on the Swahili Bantu language, cultural diffusion, as well as the Swahili city-states becoming members of a larger trade network. Despite British hopes of handing power to "moderate" local rivals, it was the Kenya African National Union (KANU) of Jomo Kenyatta that formed a government. Founding president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence in 1963 until his death in 1978, when President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI took power in a constitutional succession. Additionally, Kenya has a growing Christian gospel music scene. Coconuts, pineapples, cashew nuts, cotton, sugarcane, sisal, and corn are grown in the lower-lying areas. Ambrose, S.H. The Kenyan Highlands are one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa. The service, industry and manufacturing sectors only employ 25% of the labour force but contribute 75% of GDP. A petroleum-fired plant on the coast, geothermal facilities at Olkaria (near Nairobi), and electricity imported from Uganda make up the rest of the supply. [36] Bantu groups in Kenya include the Kikuyu, Luhya, Kamba, Kisii, Meru, Kuria, Aembu, Ambeere, Wadawida-Watuweta, Wapokomo, and Mijikenda, among others. [218] Some elite Kenyan runners who cannot qualify for their country's strong national team find it easier to qualify by running for other countries. More than 80,000 members of the Kikuyu ethnic group were held in detention camps without trial, often subject to brutal treatment. Regional variations and dishes also exist. [181], Kenya has a diverse population that includes many of the major ethnoracial and linguistic groups found in Africa. Available from: Amnesty International Annual Report 1973-1974. [20] The Agikuyu, who inhabit the slopes of Mt. The hottest period is February and March, leading into the season of the long rains, and the coldest is in July, until mid-August. Beginning in 1998, Moi attempted to influence the country's succession politics to have Uhuru Kenyatta elected in the upcoming 2002 elections. Tullow Oil estimates the country's oil reserves to be around one billion barrels. 7 [National, official and other languages] "(1) The national language of the Republic is Swahili. [197] The infant mortality rate was high at approximately 44 deaths per 1,000 children in 2012. There has been growing concern, especially during former president Daniel arap Moi's tenure, that the executive was increasingly meddling with the affairs of the judiciary. Subsequently, Moi stood for re-election and won a 5th term in 1997. English is widely spoken in commerce, schooling, and government. : +972 – … During the Mesolithic period (thence to c. 10,000 bce), new stone-tool-making techniques evolved, and the use of fire was mastered.. Early in 2006, Chinese president Hu Jintao signed an oil exploration contract with Kenya, part of a series of deals designed to keep Africa's natural resources flowing to China's rapidly expanding economy. [208] [58] During this period, substantial governmental changes to land tenure occurred. Embassy of The Republic of Kenya Addis Ababa, Ethiopia To The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, The Republic of Djibouti and Permanent Mission to The African Union, IGAD and UNECA For Visa Information, click here.For In March 1996, the presidents of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda re-established the East African Community (EAC). [207] They became more economically dependent on men. Mwai Kibaki became the first president to serve under this new constitution while Uhuru Kenyatta became the first president elected under this constitution. [18] Africa is Kenya's largest export market, followed by the European Union. Their current captain is Rakep Patel.[222]. [43][44] Since the 10th century, rulers of Kilwa would go on to build elaborate coral mosques and introduce copper coinage.[45]. The Government Ministries Current Government Portfolios/Ministries 1. It has remained an important Swahili settlement since the 14th century and once rivalled Mombasa for dominance in the African Great Lakes region. In what are by Kenyan standards unprecedented revelations, in 2010, credible claims of corruption were made with regard to recruitment[130] and procurement of armoured personnel carriers. The Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE) is ranked 4th in Africa in terms of market capitalisation. Ludwig Krapf recorded the name as both Kenia and Kegnia. Primary school is for students aged 6/7-13/14 years. [120], With International Criminal Court trial dates scheduled in 2013 for both President Kenyatta and Deputy President William Ruto related to the 2007 election aftermath, US president Barack Obama chose not to visit the country during his mid-2013 African trip. Notable prehistoric sites in the interior of Kenya include the (possibly archaeoastronomical) site Namoratunga on the west side of Lake Turkana and the walled settlement of Thimlich Ohinga in Migori County. In 2019, the nation placed 137th out of 180 countries in the index, with a score of 28 out of 100. The capture of Dedan Kimathi on 21 October 1956 in Nyeri signified the ultimate defeat of the Mau Mau and essentially ended the military offensive. Cricket is another popular sport, also ranking as the most successful team sport. [22][23][24] Some have said that this was a precise notation of the African pronunciation /ˈkɛnjə/. Agriculture and Technology. Republic of Kenya synonyms, Republic of Kenya pronunciation, Republic of Kenya translation, English dictionary definition of Republic of Kenya. Kenya's installed capacity increased from 1,142 megawatts between 2001 and 2003 to 2,341 in 2016. [115] The 2002 elections marked an important turning point in Kenya's democratic evolution in that power was transferred peacefully from the Kenya African National Union (KANU), which had ruled the country since independence, to the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC), a coalition of political parties. With a population of more than 47.6 million people in the 2019 census,[11] Kenya is the 29th most populous country. However, much of this growth has come from cash flows diverted from ordinary Kenyan pockets at the microeconomic level through targeted monetary and fiscal measures coupled with poor management, corruption, massive theft of public funds, overlegislation, and an ineffective judiciary, resulting in diminished incomes in ordinary households and small businesses, unemployment, underemployment, and general discontent across multiple sectors. Kenya's macroeconomic outlook has steadily posted robust growth over the past few decades, mostly from road and rail infrastructure projects. Prominent local gospel musicians include the Kenyan Boys Choir. They cover news, business, sports, and entertainment. [103], Kenya has considerable land area devoted to wildlife habitats, including the Masai Mara, where blue wildebeest and other bovids participate in a large-scale annual migration. Great exposure at the @Total Motorshow @KICC_kenya. [161] The state-owned Kenya Electricity Generating Company (KenGen), established in 1997 under the name of Kenya Power Company, handles the generation of electricity, while Kenya Power handles the electricity transmission and distribution system in the country. Exactly 12 months later on 12 December 1964, Kenya became a republic under the name "Republic of Kenya". @NanaGecaga @AdanMohamedCS @NanaGecaga @AdanMohamedCS I signed into law the Appropriation Bill 2018, authorizing the issue of Shs 1.4 trillion from the Consolidated Fund for delivery of public goods and services to Kenyans in the Financial Year 2018/19 which starts on 1st July 2018. Kenya has proven oil deposits in Turkana County. In Kenya, the management and control of the company has, through forgery, crime and complicity of the Republic of Kenya, been taken over by Kamlesh Pattni”. The smallholder schemes are owned, developed, and managed by individuals or groups of farmers operating as water users or self-help groups. [151], Tea, coffee, sisal, pyrethrum, corn, and wheat are grown in the fertile highlands, one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa. The Colony of Kenya and the Protectorate of Kenya each came to an end on 12 December 1963, with independence being conferred on all of Kenya. According to archaeological dating of associated artifacts and skeletal material, the Cushites first settled in the lowlands of Kenya between 3,200 and 1,300 BC, a phase referred to as the Lowland Savanna Pastoral Neolithic. They are renowned for their elaborate upper-body adornment and jewellery. [13][32][33] Nilotic groups in Kenya include the Kalenjin, Samburu, Luo, Turkana, and Maasai.[34]. The commercialisation of the pigeon pea is now enabling some farmers to buy assets ranging from mobile phones to productive land and livestock, and is opening pathways for them to move out of poverty. The estimated life expectancy dropped in 2009 to approximately 55 years — five years below the 1990 level. [231] There are also many fish-and-chips shops. The Republic of Kenya is a semi-presidential republic in Eastern Africa. [122], Base Titanium, a subsidiary of Base resources of Australia, shipped its first major consignment of minerals to China. The annual animal migration occurs between June and September, with millions of animals taking part, attracting valuable foreign tourism. Legislative power is vested exclusively in Parliament. [2] The Presbyterian Church of East Africa has 3 million followers in Kenya and surrounding countries. The first direct elections for native Kenyans to the Legislative Council took place in 1957. Rape, defilement, and battering are not always seen as serious crimes. Kenya, country in East Africa famed for its scenic landscapes and vast wildlife preserves. Throughout World War II, Kenya was an important source of manpower and agriculture for the United Kingdom. The smallest administrative units in Kenya are called locations. Several contentious clauses, including the one that allowed for only one political party, were changed in the following years. [220][221] The women's team has competed at the Olympics and World Championships, though without any notable success. He eventually surrendered in Northern Rhodesia (today Zambia) fourteen days after the Armistice was signed in 1918. Popular Kenyan music usually involves the interplay of multiple parts, and more recently, showy guitar solos as well. Horticultural produce and tea are the main growth sectors and the two most valuable of all of Kenya's exports. [153], Kenya is the world's 3rd largest exporter of cut flowers. Swahili, a Bantu language with Arabic, Persian, and other Middle-Eastern and South Asian loanwords, later developed as a lingua franca for trade between the different peoples. It was said to be founded in the 10th century by Ali ibn al-Hassan Shirazi,[41] a Persian Sultan from Shiraz in southern Iran. [93], In 2013, Kenya held its first general elections after the new constitution had been passed. [210], Basic formal education starts at age six and lasts 12 years, consisting of eight years in primary school and four in high school or secondary. [199], Diseases of poverty directly correlate with a country's economic performance and wealth distribution: Half of Kenyans live below the poverty level. Pigeon peas are very drought-resistant, so can be grown in areas with less than 650 mm annual rainfall. More than 1 million wildebeest and 200,000 zebras participate in the migration across the Mara River. In 1995, Richard Leakey formed the Safina party, but it was denied registration until November 1997. [55] (one depiction of this period of change from one colonist's perspective is found in the memoir Out of Africa by Danish author Baroness Karen von Blixen-Finecke, published in 1937). The Carrier Corps was formed and ultimately mobilised over 400,000 Africans, contributing to their long-term politicisation. Irrigation is carried out on individual or on group farms averaging 0.1–0.4 ha. [42] However, scholars have suggested that claims of Arab or Persian origin of city-states were attempts by the Swahili to legitimise themselves both locally and internationally. [38][39] Many historians had long believed that the city-states were established by Arab or Persian traders, but archaeological evidence has led scholars to recognise the city-states as an indigenous development which, though subjected to foreign influence due to trade, retained a Bantu cultural core. Malindi has traditionally been a friendly port city for foreign powers. This election was marked by large-scale intimidation of opponents, as well as harassment of election officials. In 2005, Kenyans rejected a plan to replace the 1963 independence constitution with a new one. [71] However, Amnesty International responded to this article by stating the cost of the stability in terms of human rights abuses. Under the presidency of Mwai Kibaki, the new ruling coalition promised to focus its efforts on generating economic growth, combating corruption, improving education, and rewriting its constitution. The Swahili built Mombasa into a major port city and established trade links with other nearby city-states, as well as commercial centres in Persia, Arabia, and even India. [184] Peri-urban and rural dwellers are less multilingual, with many in rural areas speaking only their native languages. [204] Maternal mortality is high, partly because of female genital mutilation,[143] with about 27% of women having undergone it. Kenya is governed under the constitution of 2010. Kenya won its independence from British colonial rule on 12 December 1963. With an area of 580,000 km², the country is somewhat larger than Metropolitan France or slightly more than twice the size of … [173], Kenya had a population of approximately 48 million people in January 2017. [182] Cushitic groups also form a small ethnic minority, as do Arabs, Indians, and Europeans. [212] There are very wide regional disparities: for example, Nairobi had the highest level of literacy at 87.1 per cent, compared to North Eastern Province, the lowest, at 8.0 per cent. Most of the prostitutes in Kenya are aged 9–18. [122] In July 2015, Obama visited Kenya, the first American president to visit the country while in office. The dormant volcano is located in Tanzania. The main tourist attractions are photo safaris through the 60 national parks and game reserves. The shantytown is believed to house between 170,000[179] and 1 million people. Other traditional dances include the Ohangla among the Luo, Nzele among the Mijikenda, Mugithi among the Kikuyu, and Taarab among the Swahili. The story details the effects of the Mau Mau on the lives of Kenyans. The Embassy of the Republic of Kenya in Washington DC wishes to alert all Kenyan citizens of existence in the social media of a FRAUDULENT announcement to the effect that the President of the United States of America has issued an Executive Order allowing eligible Kenya citizens to apply for a fake “permanent America E-Visa”. This has changed recently. The increased temperatures, rainfall variability in arid and semi-arid areas, and strong winds associated with tropical cyclones have combined to create favorable conditions for the breeding and migration of pests. On the heels of the Garissa Massacre of 1980, Kenyan troops committed the Wagalla massacre in 1984 against thousands of civilians in Wajir County. "[127] Nevertheless, there have been serious allegations of human rights violations, most recently while conducting counter-insurgency operations in the Mt Elgon area[128] and also in the district of Mandera central. The Republic of Kenya is ranked 180,485 th in the world and 5,235 th in Osiris for Largest Gambling Industry, scoring -4.29 on the Kelly Criterion Productivity Index. [86], Moi's plan to be replaced by Uhuru Kenyatta failed, and Mwai Kibaki, running for the opposition coalition "National Rainbow Coalition" (NARC), was elected president. Drums are the most dominant instrument in popular Kenyan music. [186] It has been developing since colonisation and also contains certain elements of American English. On 28 October 1992, president Moi dissolved parliament, five months before the end of his term. Median age at first marriage increases with increasing education. (The post of prime minister was abolished in 1964, reestablished in 2008, and abolished again in 2010.) Orthodox Christianity counts 621,200 adherents. Kenya's GDP had increased at a rate of 6.6 per cent a year, higher than the population growth rate of more than 3 per cent. [131] Further, the wisdom and prudence of certain decisions of procurement have been publicly questioned.[132]. Kenya lies astride the equator, extending from the Indian Ocean in the east to Uganda in the west and from the United Republic of Tanzania in the south to Ethiopia and Sudan in the north. In May 1953, General Sir George Erskine took charge as commander-in-chief of the colony's armed forces, with the personal backing of Winston Churchill.[58]. Its combination of themes—colonialism, education, and love—helped to make it one of the best-known novels in Africa. This was last seen in August and September 2011, prompting the Kenyans for Kenya initiative by the Red Cross.[152]. [201] Kenya had an estimated 15 million cases of malaria in 2006. It is usually cool at night and early in the morning inland at higher elevations. Successive projects encouraged the commercialisation of legumes by stimulating the growth of local seed production and agro-dealer networks for distribution and marketing. The Constitution of Kenya 3 P art 2—r iGhts and f undamental f reedoms 26—Right to life. Kenyatta was "[a]ccompanied by 60 Kenyan business people [and hoped to] ... gain support from China for a planned $2.5 billion railway from the southern Kenyan port of Mombasa to neighboring Uganda, as well as a nearly $1.8 billion dam", according to a statement from the president's office, also at the time of the trip. Retired Olympic and Commonwealth Games champion Kipchoge Keino helped usher in Kenya's ongoing distance dynasty in the 1970s and was followed by Commonwealth Champion Henry Rono's spectacular string of world record performances. His family used his presidential position to circumvent legal or administrative obstacles to acquiring property. [146] The Kenya Tourism Board is responsible for maintaining information pertaining to tourism in Kenya.